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Caffeine - has demonstrated the ability to force damaged skin cells into apoptosis (death), which inhibits the potential for skin carcinogenesis. Caffeine is also a powerful antioxidant that is capable of reducing several UV-induced free radicals, including hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, peroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen.
Silymarin - is a powerful antioxidant, provides anti-inflammatory action and has a protective effect against UVA-induced oxidative stress. It suppresses UVB-induced skin edema and the formation of sunburns cells, helping to suppress the melanogenesis process.
Bearberry - is a source of arbutin, a melanogenesis inhibitor, that assists in evening discoloration. It also acts as an antioxidant and skin conditioning agent.
Licorice Root Extract - has anti-inflammatory properties. It also effectively lifts pigment, as it is a melanogenesis inhibitor.
Kojic Acid - is an antibacterial agent and melanogenesis inhibitor that is sourced from mushrooms. It is highly effective in reducing hyperpigmentation.
Mulberry Root Extract - is an effective melanogenesis inhibitor that assists in evening skin discoloration.
Lactic acid - is a hydrating AHA that functions as a melanogenesis inhibitor by suppressing the formation of tyrosinase.
nice to have all in one
Pros: great lightener
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